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But how can this be so? How can we be bound by an agreement to which we were not parties? How can we be subject to a covenant on the basis of a decision taken long ago and far away by our distant ancestors? The sages, after all, raised a similar question about the wilderness generation in the days of Moses who were actually there and did give their assent. The Talmud suggests that they were not entirely free to say No. On this, R.

This is not the place to discuss this particular passage, but the essential point is clear. The sages believed with great force that an agreement must be free to be binding. Yet we did not agree to be Jews. We were, most of us, born Jews. We did not yet exist.

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How then can we be bound by the covenant? This is not a small question. It is the question on which all others turn. How can Jewish identity be passed on from parent to child? If Jewish identity were merely racial or ethnic, we could understand it. We inherit many things from our parents — most obviously our genes. But being Jewish is not a genetic condition, it is a set of religious obligations. Had we not been Jewish, we could have worked on Shabbat, eaten non-kosher food, and so on. In short, this is the question of questions of Jewish identity.

How can we be bound by Jewish law, without our choice, merely because our ancestors agreed on our behalf? Despite the fact that everything else depends on it, it was not asked often. My parents are Jewish. My grandparents were Jewish. So I am Jewish. Identity is something most people in most ages take for granted. It did, however, become an issue during the Babylonian exile. This is the first reference to Jews actively seeking to abandon their identity.

It happened again in rabbinic times. There were others who, under Roman rule, sought to become Roman. The third time was in Spain in the fifteenth century. That is where we find two Bible commentators, R. Isaac Arama and R. Isaac Abarbanel, raising precisely the question we have raised about how the covenant can bind Jews today.


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The answers given were different at different times. Even against their will they would be known as Jews. That, tragically, is what happened during the two great ages of assimilation, fifteenth century Spain and nineteenth and early twentieth century Europe. In both cases, racial antisemitism persisted, and Jews continued to be persecuted. The sages answered the question mystically.

They said, even the souls of Jews not yet born were present at Sinai and ratified the covenant Exodus Rabbah Demystifying this, perhaps the sages meant that in his or her innermost heart even the most assimilated Jew knew that he or she was still a Jew. That seems to have been the case with figures like Heinrich Heine and Benjamin Disraeli, who lived as Christians but often wrote and thought as Jews.

The fifteenth century Spanish commentators found this answer problematic. As Arama said, we are each of us both body and soul. How then is it sufficient to say that our soul was present at Sinai? How can the soul obligate the body? Of course the soul agrees to the covenant. Spiritually, to be a Jew is a privilege, and you can confer a privilege on someone without their consent.

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But for the body, the covenant is a burden. It involves all sorts of restrictions on physical pleasures. Therefore if the souls of future generations were present but not their bodies, this would not constitute consent. But perhaps there is a simpler one. Not every obligation that binds us is one to which we have freely given our assent.

There are obligations that come with birth. The classic example is a crown prince. To be the heir to a throne involves a set of duties and a life of service to others.

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It is possible to neglect these duties. In extreme circumstances it is even possible for a monarch to abdicate. But no one chooses to be heir to a throne. That is a fate, a destiny, that comes with birth.

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That may be a privilege. It may be a burden. It may be both. It is a peculiar post-Enlightenment delusion to think that the only significant things about us are those we choose. For the truth is some of the most important facts about us, we did not choose. We did not choose to be born. We did not choose our parents. We did not choose the time and place of our birth.


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Yet each of these affects who we are and what we are called on to do. We are part of a story that began long before we were born and will continue long after we are no longer here, and the question for all of us is: will we continue the story? The hopes of a hundred generations of our ancestors rest on our willingness to do so. Deep in our collective memory the words of Moses continue to resonate. We can live it. We can abandon it. But it is a choice we cannot avoid and it has immense consequences. The future of the covenant rests with us.

By Fred Reiss, Ed. These and other trained rabbis spread out across Poland and surrounding territories carrying the wisdom of Chassidism. However, its message met with strong resistance among a number of important rabbis who felt that Chassidism represented an offshoot of the failed and devastating messianic movement of Shabbatai Tzvi, which had essentially played out between and , and the Frankists, whose members accepted the messianic claims of Jacob Frank, in eighteenth century Poland, that he was the reincarnation of Shabbatai Tzvi.

His focus was the youth…. They allowed themselves to be empowered and took the initiative. This is not true. Money, however, is donated directly to Chabad by very wealthy people. Today, NCFJE is a multi-faceted charity that protects, feeds, in addition to educating thousands of Jewish children throughout the New York metropolitan area and around the nation. The Chabad on Campus International Foundation, which maintains the network of Chabad Jewish Student Centers on college campuses throughout the world, has grown significantly since the first one opened in the early s.

Intended or not, the non-Chasidic reader comes away with a most interesting perspective of the historical infighting among the various sects and movements. Dalfin is a cheerleader for Chabad, and rightly so. Its achievement in attracting followers, providing services for and reaching out to the greater Jewish community is unmatched by any other Jewish body. Fred Reiss is a retired public and Hebrew school teacher and administrator.

In the biblical account of creation, God fashions a single human being as the progenitor of all humanity. And after the deluge of Noah, this message is reinforced when the new phase of history is once again inaugurated by a single family. As God chose Avraham, and subsequently Yitzchak and Yaakov, He entrusted them with a dual mission: to found the nation of Israel that would inherit, settle and establish a model society in the holy, promised land of Israel, all while serving as a source of light for all mankind.

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Ever since, particularly in the aftermath of the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 C. Communities were reestablished throughout the Diaspora, and many Jews responded to the clarion call to return to Eretz Yisrael, where a sovereign Jewish state arose. Undoubtedly, the Shoah constitutes the historical nadir of the relations between Jews and our non-Jewish neighbors in Europe.